Experts hot Discuss Massive carbon neutralization: strive for a voice in carbon sequestration and neutralization degree 2022
Carbon neutralization Science and Technology Forum, many experts exchanged views on the “Carbon neutralization Science and Technology Innovation Path.
1- Theme Carbon neutralization, Carbon Dafeng Carbon-neutral Science and Technology Forum, Achieving carbon neutrality requires a large number of talents who can calculate carbon revenue and expenditure.
Ding Zhongli said that the goal of “carbon neutralization” has brought a new test to the scientific and technological community. In view of future needs, we should take the initiative to explore with a high risk of failure. When carrying out international cooperation and reaching international consensus, China should strive for a voice in terms of “carbon sequestration” and “neutralization degree”.
Realizing “carbon neutrality” requires three ends of exertion
Ding Zhongli said that at present, about 40.1 billion tons of carbon dioxide are emitted globally every year, of which 86% come from fossil fuel use and 14% from land-use change. About 46% of the carbon dioxide emitted remains in the atmosphere, 23% is absorbed by the ocean, and 31% by land.” This is a rough estimate, not accurate data.
He said that carbon neutralization is a “three-terminal force” system. The first end is the power terminal, replacing coal, oil and gas with non-carbon energy such as wind, light, water and nuclear; the second end is the energy consumption end, replacing coal, oil and gas with electricity, hydrogen energy, geothermal energy, etc.; the third end is the carbon sequestration end, which fixing carbon on the surface, products or strata with carbon storage technologies such as ecological construction and CCUS.
He described China’s “carbon neutralization” scenario. If the carbon dioxide to be emitted is 2.5 billion-3 billion tons per year, then the power system will be 1 billion tons, the industrial system will be 1 billion tons, the cement will be 500 million tons, and the rest will be 0-500 billion tons. At the same time, it is assumed that the ocean absorbs about 23%, the land inorganic processes absorbs about 17%, absorbing a total of 1 billion-12 billion tons/year; terrestrial ecosystems absorb 1 billion to 1.3 billion tons/year, and can increase to 1.5 billion tons/year after ecological management; and CCUS technology can remain 500 million tons/year.
Universities and scientific research institutes undertake the task of attacking difficulties.
Ding Zhongli said that “technology is king” will be fully reflected in the process of achieving carbon neutrality, and a complete and powerful technical support should be established.
The goal of “carbon neutralization” is a new test for the scientific and technological community. He said that we should change our way of thinking from traditional introduction, absorption and re-innovation to real original and subversive innovation. In view of future needs, we should take the initiative to explore with a high risk of failure. At the same time, we should organize the relevant R&D forces across the country, divide labor and cooperate, form a strict responsibility system, and provide support for the implementation of the industry.
Abundant and multi-source R&D funds are equally important. Ding Zhongli said that the national public finance funds, the investment of enterprises, society and local governments, venture capital, etc. should be coordinated as a whole. To form a technology alliance, leading enterprises should take the lead in putting forward demands, and universities and scientific research institutes should undertake the task of attacking difficulties.
He pointed out that China should strive for a voice in “carbon sequestration” and “neutralization degree”. Have your own conclusions on core issues, such as the “emission ceiling” problem. At the same time, it is necessary to calculate the global “carbon income and expenditure”, such as which countries “overpayments exceed expenditure” and which countries “overpayments over expenditure”. To achieve carbon neutrality, we need to cultivate a lot of talents who can calculate carbon income and expenditure.
Hou Jianguo, President of the Chinese Academy of Sciences:
To achieve the goal of “double carbon”, scientific and technological innovation needs to play a leading role
Hou Jianguo delivered a speech on the strategic goal of carbon neutralization. He said that in order to achieve the goal of dual carbon, scientific and technological innovation is urgently needed to play a leading and supporting role in it, and put forward new requirements for scientific and technological innovation from four aspects: route, theory, technology, income and expenditure.
Hou Jianguo said that to achieve the goal of double carbon, we must first come up with a road map to solve the problem of realizing carbon neutrality at the peak of carbon.” The dual carbon goal is a systematic project covering a wide range of disciplines and a long time span. It is necessary to consider the stage goals of economic and social development, total energy consumption, energy structure, industrial structure, regional development and ecosystem construction. Only through scientific demonstration can a practical plan be formed.
At the same time, a number of new theories should be put forward to break through the principle of carbon reduction and sequestration. Achieving the goal of dual carbon requires changes in new energy, new materials and other fields. It is urgent to solve some of the most fundamental scientific problems through interdisciplinary, comprehensive cross-cutting and cutting-edge research and exploration, clarify the process mechanism and regulatory mechanism, and provide a solid theoretical foundation for technological change.
We should also overcome a number of new technologies and solve the process and equipment problems of emission reduction and benefit increase. The realization of the dual-carbon goal will stimulate revolutionary application scenarios. It is necessary to make full use of scientific research achievements in materials, energy, information, chemical industry, ecology and other fields to carry out green reengineering of power, transportation, construction, chemical and other industries, overcome a number of key core technologies, and develop a series of related equipment and products.
Finally, keep in mind the problem of income and expenditure. Accurate data acquisition and reasonable calculation methods are indispensable for the realization of the dual carbon goal. It is necessary to build a sound monitoring system, establish a data sharing platform, scientifically evaluate the capabilities of marine and terrestrial ecosystems, and objectively and truly reflect the income and expenditure.
Hou Jianguo said that the Chinese Academy of Sciences gave full play to its advantages of systematization and construction, launched major carbon neutralization consulting projects led by Academician Ding Zhongli and attended by more than 100 academicians and experts, and organized and implemented major technologies such as climate change, carbon income and expenditure demonstration of transformative clean energy, thorium-based molten salt reactor nuclear energy system, etc. The project is planning and formulating the carbon neutralization action plan for scientific and technological support of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
2- Intelligent + Energy Forum
Du Xiangwan, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering:
Low carbon is not simply pulling the brake to limit electricity.
At the forum, Du Xiangwan said that the “double carbon” goal will force the adjustment of the industrial structure and inhibit the development of high-energy-consuming industries in a timely manner. The brake of the “double carbon” goal will also boost green financial investment, bringing new economic growth points and new employment opportunities.
Carbon neutralization will be a new engine of economic and social development
Du Xiangwan said that achieving the goal of “double carbon” is a complex system project and a scientific transformation process. The policy is very strong, and we need to grasp the rhythm and develop actively and steadily. We should not only prevent one-size-fits-all simplification, such as simply pulling the brake and limiting power is low carbon, but also preventing backward and ineffective investment brought about by poor transformation.
Du Xiangwan believes that we should vigorously develop non-fossil energy and build a new power system with new energy as the main body. In a word, such a new power system can be completed by coordinating the longitudinal development, transmission, change, distribution, use and ‘source network load storage’, horizontal multi-energy complementarity, development of a variety of commercial energy storage technologies, and mobilization of various flexible resources at the same time.
Du Xiangwan said that carbon peak is the peak achieved by the gradual reduction of carbon intensity caused by industrial structure optimization and technological progress. It is not a peak, but a peak aimed at carbon neutrality. Carbon neutralization is a new engine of China’s economic and social development and a path of cost-effectiveness, economic benefits and social benefits.
Need to re-understand energy resource endowment “Carbon Neutralization Carbon Sequestration And Neutralization Degree”
Achieving the goal of “double carbon” requires a new understanding of our country’s energy resource endowment. In the past, when it comes to China’s energy and resource endowments, people mentioned six words: rich in coal, lack of oil, and lack of gas. This understanding error is very large, which will affect our country’s energy policy and energy strategy. Du Xiangwan said.
Why is there a big error? Du Xiangwan said that because coal and oil and gas are fossil energy sources, in addition to the energy resource endowment of fossil energy, our country also has very rich renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy, solar thermal utilization, solid waste energy, etc.
Du Xiangwan said that at present, less than one-tenth of the amount of solar energy and wind energy that our country has developed can be developed, so the utilization of renewable energy resources can also be controlled by itself.
China’s energy load is in the east, how can we solve it? Du Xiangwan mentioned a way of thinking: combine distribution and collection, combine around and distance, strengthen distribution and concentration, and improve energy self-sufficiency in the central and eastern regions.
Guo Zhi, chief economist of the National Energy Administration:
Guo Zhi said that at present, China’s renewable energy development and utilization scale ranks first in the world. China’s energy consumption structure has changed rapidly to clean and low carbon, and has formulated a series of development strategic plans, reform plans and industrial policies to comprehensively promote the green and low-carbon development of energy, promote energy transformation and transformation, and promote the high-quality development of global energy.
According to Guo Zhi, as of July, the installed capacity of non-fossil energy in China has reached 1.03 billion kilowatts, 380 million kilowatts of hydropower, 53.26 million kilowatts of nuclear power, 290 million kilowatts at peak, 270 million kilowatts of solar power, and 34 million kilowatts of biomass power generation. The supply level of clean energy has increased, and science and technology have enabled energy development in the new era, from megawatt-level power generation equipment to constantly setting new world records.
“From the realization of renewable energy equipment to the firm grasp of oil and gas technology in our own hands, we have improved the top-level design, tackled key core technologies, deeply integrated modern information technologies such as Internet +, big data, cloud computing, etc. with the energy industry, promoted the green and low-carbon transformation of energy, and discussed energy international cooperation, Co-construction and sharing have achieved fruitful results.” Guo Zhi said.
Guo Zhi suggested that through the exchange and discussion of this forum, we hope to formulate and implement more favorable measures. Promote important tasks such as the development of new energy storage, formulate supporting policies and measures, and help achieve carbon peaks and carbon neutralization goals in the energy field.
Secondly, he suggested taking scientific and technological innovation as the guide, we should promote the comprehensive green energy consumption transformation, increase cooperation in energy science and technology innovation, carry out basic theoretical research, solve key technologies and core equipment, promote the comprehensive green transformation of economic and social development, promote the establishment of green energy consumption models, and build smart energy systems.
Finally, it is necessary to strengthen international energy cooperation, introduce richer energy supply entities, guide domestic enterprises to strengthen cooperation with countries, and achieve win-win development between China’s energy and world energy.
3- Theme Health
Global Science and Life Health Forum
Gao Fu, academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and director of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention:
The game between viruses and humans is like a “cat-and-mouse game”
“Since human beings can isolate viruses, seven kinds of coronaviruses that can infect humans have been found.” On September 25, Gao Fu said at the second Global Science and Life Health Parallel Forum of the 2021 Zhongguancun Forum that the game between viruses and humans is like a “cat-and-mouse game”, and everyone should have confidence in vaccines.
The COVID-19 pandemic is a “grey rhinoceros” rather than a “black swan”
Gao Fu said that ordinary people do not understand the situation and may think that the COVID-19 epidemic is a black swan, but for professionals, it is a gray rhinoceros, which is possible.” I am a member of the Global Pandemic Response Monitoring Committee. We meet twice a year. As the 2019 annual report says, the influenza virus and coronavirus will be the two most serious viruses that will cause a human pandemic in the future. But human beings are not ready yet. He said he hoped to remind everyone again and be ready.
Gao Fu showed you a picture in the PPT of his speech. This picture shows 7 kinds of coronaviruses infected with human beings, including well-known SARS in 2002 and HCoV-HKU1 in 2004. “The virus was found in 2004, and some professors found that Shenzhen patients returned to Hong Kong to successfully isolate the virus, named the University of Hong Kong 1 Number, so it’s called HKU1.” Gao Fu said that traceability is a scientific problem. “HKU1 tells us that traceability should not be in a hurry. In 1995, when the goods stored in the Brazilian refrigerator were taken out, there was already the HKU1 virus.”
Therefore, although COVID-19 is called COVID-19, it is likely that it was hidden somewhere 20 years ago, 30 years ago or even 50 years ago.
The world does not share vaccines, viruses will share the world
Gao Fu introduced that vaccines are about seven categories, including inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines, protein subunit vector vaccines, virus vector vaccines, mRNA vaccines, etc. Various designs cover the whole vaccine situation today.
Seven vaccines are on the market for emergency use, but ‘one foot higher and magic is ten feet higher’. Today, everyone is discussing whether our vaccine works?” Gao Fu said, “I’m glad to tell you that (viruses and humans) is a “cat-mouse game”. Looking forward to the future, the virus has so many mutations and names, but it is obvious that vaccines can provide basic immunity and reduce the burden of disease. “That is to say, it may be a little worse to prevent infection and disease, and prevent transmission. Broadcast can’t do everything, but preventing severe illness and death has obvious effects. Everyone should have confidence in vaccines.
Gao Fu said, “If the world does not share vaccines, the virus will share the world.” As coronavirus mutations continue to emerge, these mutants have different characteristics – transmission speed, pathogenicity, immune escape, etc., and vaccine sharing around the world should be part of the solution. Ensuring that the COVID-19 vaccine is available and widely used by all countries to unite to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic is an important strategy to prevent the spread of the virus around the world.
Plenary Session of Zhongguancun Forum
Zhang Boli, academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering:
I hope the epidemic will end by the end of next year.
“It is innovation to include health in the Zhongguancun Forum. I hope this innovation can be sustained, but this time let me talk about fighting the epidemic. I hope it is an appropriate time. I hope that the (epidemic) will end as soon as possible, and it is better to end by the end of next year.” On September 25, at the plenary meeting of Zhongguancun Forum, Zhang Boli said that through the treatment process of epidemic cases, whether it is the onset, treatment or rehabilitation period, the early intervention, participation and classified treatment of traditional Chinese medicine has reduced the morbidity and severe mortality rate of the epidemic and improved the cure rate.
80% of cases are controlled in the first week of the onset of the disease.
During the COVID-19 pandemic in February last year, Zhang Boli’s team went to Wuhan and took more than two weeks to draw a picture.” This picture represents our basic grasp of this disease. In fact, the first week of case infection is the most active and infectious period of the virus, and the best period for treatment. Zhang Boli said that 80% of patients will basically be controlled in the first week of infection and recover in the second week. Only some people with basic diseases or who are not treated in time will they reach the second stage when they turn into severe cases.
“We have all seen the structural diagram of COVID-19. Those red bulges are spitting proteins.” Zhang Boli said that COVID-19 is connected to the human body by spitting protein, which leads to disease and transmission. Delta virus also has also mutated sponid protein, but it is more infectious, its toxicity has increased by nearly hundreds to 1,000 times, and its symptoms are heavier. Although the efficiency of vaccine protection is declining now, it is still effective in preventing the epidemic from getting back to an over and reducing mortality.
From the perspective of traditional Chinese medicine symptoms, the characteristics of the virus are different in different regions.
Zhang Boli introduced that some manifestations after the virus invaded the body were “symptoms” in the eyes of traditional Chinese medicine.
Last year, when the epidemic broke out, Zhang Boli’s team arrived in Wuhan and began to pay attention to the patient’s “symptoms” using traditional Chinese medicine. It only took more than a week to compile a comprehensive questionnaire on COVID-19, make it into a mobile APP, buy 100 mobile phones, and let doctors take mobile phones into the red zone. It took them for more than a week, and the symptoms of more than 1,000 patients in 20 hospitals in four provinces came out.
These symptoms show that COVID-19 is characterized by dampness and toxicity, but the clinical manifestations are added to disease, such as Guangdong heating, Jiangsu and Zhejiang heating, northwest Gansu and Wuhan at that time, and the snow was very cold, which made Jiahan have different characteristics. “Chinese medicine intervenes in the early stage, participates in the whole process, and plays at all stages. It works. For early ordinary patients, traditional Chinese medicine can take it down alone.
Driven by Zhang Boli, traditional Chinese medicine intervened in the treatment of COVID-19 throughout the process. More than 12,000 patients have been admitted to 16 cabin hospitals in Wuhan. Each cabin hospital is equipped with traditional Chinese medicine experts and distributes traditional Chinese medicine prescriptions at the same time, and the use rate of traditional Chinese medicine reaches 90%.
After the Jiangxia Square Cabin Hospital was completed and opened, Zhang Boli encouraged medical staff to lead patients to practice Baduanjin and Taijiquan. Through the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine, Tai Chi, massage, acupuncture and other traditional Chinese medicine treatment, patients have achieved “three zeros”: that is, zero to severe illness, zero recovery, and zero infection of medical staff.